A larger Test Statistic value (such as that for z, t, F, or Chi-Square) results in a smaller p-value. The p-value is the Probability of an Alpha (False Positive) Error.
And conversely, a smaller Test Statistic value results in a larger value for p.
Here's how it works:
In the close-ups of the right tail, zero is not visible. It is at the center of the bell-shaped t curve, and it is out of the picture to the left. So, a larger value of the Test Statistic, t, would be farther to the right. And, the hatched area under the curve representing the p-value would be smaller. This is illustrated in the middle column of the table above.
Conversely, if the Test Statistic is smaller, then it's value is plotted more to the left, closer to zero. And so, the hatched area under the curve representing p would be larger. This is shown in the rightmost column of the table.
For more on the concepts of Test Statistic and p-value, see my videos:
1/9/2021 10:55:48 am
Glad you liked it. This is also one of my favorites.
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Andrew A. (Andy) Jawlik is the author of the book, Statistics from A to Z -- Confusing Concepts Clarified, published by Wiley.